Sunday, December 25, 2011

Online Students Enjoy Blogging About Global Issues

     During the Fall quarter, my students in SOC 415 Global Social Change created individual "global issue blogs" using the blog feature within the Blackboard learning management system.  Each student selected one developing country as the focus of the blog.  During the 12-week quarter, students blogged about some of the global problems --human trafficking, poverty, environmental problems, human rights violations, lack of education -- in that country and how non-profit organizations and social enterprises are helping solve those problems.  

     Early in the quarter, Loren Kleinman of the Academic Support Center (now with our instructional design department) and Elizabeth Leonard of the Online Library presented students with a Lib Guide workshop on Blogging at this link.  The Berkeley College Library and Academic Support Center have created a number of excellent Lib Guides for our online courses at this link.  Loren and Elizabeth helped moderate a class discussion in the online course and helped guide the students in their research on global issues in the country the selected for study. 

   Students had access to their classmates' blogs and posted comments during the quarter.  Through visiting and commenting on one another's blogs, students learned about the social problems facing many developing countries, not just the country they researched.   On our final discussion forum students reflected on their research blogging experience.

Doing the blog project also taught me a lot. Out of all the papers that I've done for my other classes, I enjoyed doing the blog the most. I really learned a lot about other countries.  C.L.

I will admit, that I was uncertain about this class at first.  You made it a lot more exciting with allowing us to use a blog to learn about the countries that not everyone might have known well.  I even learned more about a country that holds part of my family and part of my heritage as well.  It has made me also open my eyes so much more and I am very glad that I took this class!  A.G.

What I enjoyed most was the blog project was the looking into the worlds of people in different countries and learning about the things that were going on socially and economically.  K.B.

When I had first seen this class, I believed this course would help me make my decision whether I wanted to continue my education in international studies, which I would like to.  This class has been enlightening and I have enjoyed learning about different countries social issues through our blog project.   A.R.

I think our blog project was a great idea, since all this information was available to all of us! From our blog I learned  a lot of new information about many poor countries.   Z.M.

Global Social Change has really opend my eyes to the real world. When I thought I had it bad, the blogging project enlightened me to see there are people in Third World countries who are suffering.  J.C.

Monday, November 21, 2011

Giving Our Students A High Impact Learning Experience

How can we give our students a richer more engaging learning experience that will boost academic achievement and meet essential learning outcomes?   One approach to meeting these challenges is the use of what George Kuh calls "high impact educational practices" (Kuh 2008) or HIPS.  

In his article High Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter (AAC&U 2008), George Kuh identifies several educational practices that have been shown to have a significant positive effect on student success.    My colleagues and I have used several HIPS with great success both in onsite and online courses at Berkeley College, including collaborative learning, learning communities, internships, academic service-learning, capstone courses and general education.

Kuh's high impact practices include the following.  Click HERE to see a chart showing these in greater detail.  

First-year seminars and experiences - Within a small group context, students develop critical thinking, writing, information literacy, collaborative learning and other skills.  

Common intellectual experiences - A new form of a "core curriculum", such as a program of general education courses, both introductory and upper-level, which examine broad integrative themes.

Learning communities - Students take two or more linked courses as a group and work closely with professors.  Common themes, topics and readings are examined.

Writing-intensive courses - Similar to "writing across the curriculum", these courses focus on writing at all levels and across multiple disciplines from the humanities and social sciences to math and business.

Collaborative assignments and projects -  Students learn to work together in teams to solve problems and complete projects.  This can include study groups, writing, research and other assignments.  

Undergraduate research - More colleges and universities are offering courses that give students experience in conducting research projects.

Diversity/global learning - Courses and programs that provide cross-cultural competence,  awareness of diversity and global interconnectedness.  Sometimes includes study abroad.

Service learning and community-based learning - Courses that offer students experiential learning opportunities that also provide services to nonprofit organizations.   

Internships - Students acquire practical knowledge through faculty-supervised internships or job-related assignments.  

Capstone courses and projects -  Student projects completed near the end of their degree program, such as a portfolio of their work, a performance, art exhibit or research paper.  The capstone project demonstrates an application of what they have learned.

These high impact learning activities benefit all students, however, with the greatest benefit to historically underserved students.  To learn more about these benefits view the presentation High Impact Activities : What They Are, Why They Work, and Who Benefits. Robert M. Gonyea. Jillian Kinzie. George D. Kuh

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Ethics Matters

Professor Yesudas Choondassery,
School of Liberal Arts
Berkeley College students recently educated the Woodland Park campus community about the importance of ethics and  charitable giving.  As part of an academic service-learning course (HUM 225 Ethics) , Professor Yesudas Choondassery and his students presented educational posters about theories of ethics and global giving. 

HUM 225 Ethics is an introduction to the study of ethics and moral philosophy, including its historical development, the major figures within that history, and some of the ethical and moral issues that face us today.  Students are introduced to the ideas of great thinkers throughout history and the course encourages students’ own thinking on various ethical and moral issues.

Students presented many of the concepts they learned about in the course including consequentialst and non-consequentialist perspectives, Kant's duty ethics, intuitionism, divine command theory, utilitarianism, care ethics and gender differences in moral attitudes.

During the event funds were also raised for our international service partner, Casa de los Angeles, a Mexican-based non-profit daycare center that provides childcare to poor mothers thus helping to break the cycle of poverty.  Many thanks to Ashante Barns-Awe and Sandra Coppola of Student Development and Campus Life, who helped coordinate the event and provided Mexican food for attendees.

Click the link for more information on Berkeley College Academic Service-Learning.

Friday, August 19, 2011

Oral History As A Pedagogical Tool

Students in my online course, SOC 210 Sociology, recently completed their oral history interview projects.  Students interviewed family members or friends about their life histories, placed individual life experiences in historical context and shared their papers in a discussion forum.  In doing so, they learned an important concept in sociology:  the impact of history on individual lives. Oral history research is an excellent pedagogical tool and helps build a cohesive community in the online classroom. 

In his book, The Sociological Imagination (1959), sociologist, C. Wright Mills, writes "neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both."  "Seldom aware of the intricate connection between the patterns of their own lives and the course of world history, ordinary people do not usually know what this connection means for the kinds of people they are becoming and for the kinds of history-making in which they might take part. They do not possess the quality of mind essential to grasp the interplay of individuals and society, of biography and history, of self and world"  (Chapter One:  The Promise, The Sociological Imagination, 1959). 

The diverse cultural backgrounds of the students further enrich the learning experience.   Here are some examples of the students' interview subjects.

A father who immigrated to the U.S. from Cuba during the Carter administration in the late 1970s.
A mother who lived through the 35-year civil war in Guatemala.
Family members who lived in the Dominican Republic during the Trujillo era.
A family member who witnessed the Newark riots in the 1960s.
A mother's memories of living in South Korea during the Korean War.
A grandmother who described living in the South during Jim Crow segregation.
A grandmother's memories of the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

During our final discussion forum, students reflected on the experience of doing their oral history projects. 

"I want to say that the class was a great experience. I not only learned new things from my fellow classmates, but I also learned new things about myself and society."

"In the words of my uncle: 'we need to try to understand the past, in order to understand the present.' He has said this many times about history and people. It is important to know where we all come from; what struggles our relatives have gone through. I feel that if we are aware of that, we can understand who they are and why they do, or don't do certain things; why they react, or don't react in certain ways. It also helps us have better understanding, and thus reduce stereotyping and discrimination."  

"During this project, I have discovered a much greater appreciation for my mother and her sacrifices for her family.  This class helped me gain that closer relationship I always wanted to have with my mother.  Thank you."

“I have a greater appreciation for people who lived through the Great Depression, for the life and times I live in, and of course my grandma. My favorite part of the interview was when she was describing all the emotions she felt during the Great Depression and World War II. There were so many details that I now understand better.”

Go to the following websites for more information on doing oral histories.

Oral History Association
International Oral History Association
Do History:  Step-by-Step Guide To Oral History

Monday, June 13, 2011

Are Women Better Hedge Fund Managers?

On National Public Radio this morning, Brian Lehrer interviewed ABC News legal analyst, Dan Abrams, about his new book,  Man Down:  Proof Beyond A Reasonable Doubt That Women Are Better Cops, Drivers, Gamblers, Spies, World Leaders, Beer Tasters, Hedge Fund Managers And Just About Everything Else.

Women make up over half of the global population, but represent less than 15% of heads of state.   Yet, Abrams believes that the world just might be a better place if women were in charge.  Why? Because studies show that women are better than men in many roles. 

Worldwide studies have shown that countries with more women legislators are less corrupt.

From 1981 to 2009, US laws passed by female legislators were more popular and they got more money for their consituents.  Women also passed more laws than male legislators.

Only 3% of hedge fund managers are women, yet female managers get consistently higher returns.
Women are more effective sports gamblers than men.

Women videogamers who get obsessed with gaming are less likely than their male counterparts to become dysfunctional. 

Compared with men, women are 10% more accurate hammering nails.

Women are better beer-tasters because they have a better sense of smell.

Even being struck by lightning is more likely to happen to men.   From 1998 until 2008, 82% of those struck by lightning were men.  Perhaps because they take more risks during thunderstorms, for example staying out on the golf course too long and other more reckless conduct?.

This book raises some important and critical questions:  

How accurate is the science associated with these findings?  

Are the results based on just one study or multiple studies?

Is it sexist to say that women are better leaders, executives, news broadcasters, legislators, etc than men?  When someone says men are better than women at certain tasks, there are cries of sexism.

Perhaps one of the most interesting studies cited in Abrams's book is this:

One large survey asked to rate men and women on the most important of characteristics for world leaders --honesty, ambition, creativity, etc..   Women scored higher than men on 7 out of the 8, all except ambition.  However, if you ask the same people if they would prefer a male or female leader, they answer MEN!

Here is a link to Abrams's blog and book information:

The interview with Abrams:

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Berkeley College Hosts Service-Learning Symposium

On Friday May 13, 2011, Berkeley College will host a symposium "Virtual Reality - Online Academic Service-Learning:  Challenges and Opportunities", sponsored by the New York Campus Compact.  The event will be held at the New York City campus at 12 East 41st Street from 9:30 a.m. to 1:30 pm.  It will also be streamed live on the Berkeley College website at  

What is Service Learning?  Service Learning is often described as "learning by doing".  It is a teaching method which combines community service with academic instruction, enabling students to apply academic knowledge and critical thinking skills to meet genuine community needs. It often provides an opportunity for students to gain a deeper understanding of course content and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility.  Take advangate of this opportunity to see how Service Learning is applied in the Virtual World.  Experience online academic service learning from multiple perspectives that will assist your institution in implementing successful online academic service learning courses.    Remember, if you cannot make it LIVE to the event, see it streamed from our Berkeley College website at!                                

For more information about NYCC, go to

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

International Service-Learning Partner Wins Community Service Award

Congratulations to our service-learning partner, Donna Quathamer, who recently received the De La Salle Award for community service from Lewis University in Romeoville, Illinois. This prestigious award is presented each year to individuals who provide extraordinary service and leadership for the benefit of the community and region. As founder of Casa de los Angeles, a day care center that serves the poorest families in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico, Donna and her staff have helped improve the lives of so many children and struggling single moms.

It has been a privilege to have Casa de los Angeles as our international service-learning partner during the past year. So far, Berkeley College students have completed two service projects. During the spring quarter 2010, students in SOC 205 World Cultures online designed a blog prototype to be incorporated into the non-profit's social media strategy. Students from SOC 415 Global Social Change online spent the winter quarter 2011 researching and creating a grants database for Casa de los Angeles.

We look forward to partnering with Donna and Casa de los Angeles this coming summer quarter 2011. Philosophy professor, Dr. Yesudas Choondassery, and students in his HUM 225 Ethics class will hold an educational fundraiser as part of their academic service-learning project. Details will be posted on this blog in early June, and the event will be held in August.

For more information on Donna Quathamer and Casa de los Angeles, visit their website  You can also friend them on FaceBook at

Monday, April 18, 2011

Musical Diversity with Moroccan Jazz Singer, Malika Zarra

Today, while driving to the Garret Mt. campus, I was introduced to the incredibly beautiful voice of "Morocco's jazz jewel", Malika Zarra, on NPR's Soundcheck.  According to CNN, Zarra, who sings in Berber, Moroccan, French and English, "is redefining the term fusion and is adding her own unique sound to the world" (

"Malika was born in Southern Morocco, in a little village called Ouled Teima. Her father's family was originally from Tata, a city on the Sahara plain, while her mother was a Berber from the High Atlas. During her early childhood, there was always music and dancing in the house. After her family emigrated to a suburb of Paris, she found herself straddling two very different societies. I had to be French at school yet retain my Moroccan cultural heritage at home, she recalls, Like many immigrant children, I learned to switch quickly between the two. It was hard but brought me a lot of good things too."

Zarra was influenced by musicians such as fellow Moroccan Hajja Hamdaouia, Rais Mohand, the Lebanese-born, Egyptian-based ud virtuoso/composer Farid el Atrache, Um Kalthoum and Algerian singer Warda (Al-Jazairia), as well as American musicians, Ella Fitzgerald, Bobby McFerrin, Thelonious Monk, Stevie Wonder and Aretha Franklin. 

To hear Zarra's new CD, Berber Taxi, go to   Malika Zarra also has a FaceBook page at   View a You Tube video of a recent performance below.

Why Do We Kiss?

Over the years there have been numerous biological, anthropological, and psychological theories about kissing -- why we kiss, how we kiss, the evolutionary origins of kissing, cross-cultural patterns of kissing, etc. Now the Mind and Brain section of Discover Magazine Online (March 19, 2011) has posted its definitive list of 20 Things You Didn't Know About.... Kissing. 

1 Only you: Human lips are different from those of all other animals because they are everted, meaning that they purse outward.

2 But we are not the only species to engage in kissing-like behaviors. Great apes press their lips together to express excitement, affection, or reconciliation.
3 Scientists are not sure why humans kiss, but some think the answer lies in early feeding experiences. Through nursing and (in some cultures) receiving pre-chewed food from a parent's mouth, infants may learn to associate lip pressure with a loving act.

4 Another possibility: Smelling a loved one's cheek has long served as a means of recognition in cultures around the world, from New Zealand to Alaska. Over time, a brush of the lips may have become a traditional accompaniment.

5 And yet kissing is not universal, leading some experts, like anthropologist Vaughn Bryant of Texas A&M, to think it might actually be a learned behavior.

6 The Roman military introduced kissing to many non-kissing cultures (after its conquests were over, presumably); later it was European explorers who carried the torch.

7 Being close enough to kiss helps our noses assess compatibility. In a landmark study, evolutionary biologist Claus Wedekind of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland reported that women prefer the scents of men whose immunity-coding genes are different from their own. Mixing genes that way may produce offspring with a stronger immune system.

8 Wedekind's experiment, widely known as the sweaty T-shirt study, involved very little sweat. Male participants were asked to shower beforehand so their scent would be faint.

9 The earliest literary evidence for kissing comes from northern Indias Vedic Sanskrit texts, written 1,000 to 2,000 years ago. A portion of the Satapatha Brahmana mentions lovers setting mouth to mouth.

10 Love Is the Drug: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of desire and reward, spikes in response to novel experiences, which explains why a kiss with someone new can feel so special.

11 In some people, a jolt of dopamine can cause a loss of appetite and an inability to sleep, symptoms commonly associated with falling in love.

12 Can't Get Enough of Your Love: Dopamine is produced in the ventral tegmental area of the brain, the same region affected by addictive drugs like cocaine.

13 In men, a passionate kiss can also promote the hormone oxytocin (video), which fosters bonding and attachment, according to behavioral neuroscientist Wendy Hill of Lafayette College in Pennsylvania.

14 Holding hands and kissing reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol, thereby lowering blood pressure and optimizing immune response.

15 And a passionate kiss has the same effect as belladonna in making our pupils dilate.

16 Prelude to a Kiss: Two-thirds of all people turn their head to the right when kissing, according to psychologist Onur Gntrkn of Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany. This behavior may mirror the head-turning preference observed in babies and even in fetuses.

17 Evolutionary psychologists have discovered that men are far more likely to prefer sloppy tongue kisses than women.

18 The exchange of saliva could provide a reproductive advantage for males. During an open-mouthed kiss, a man passes a bit of testosterone to his partner. Over weeks and months, repeated kissing could enhance a female's libido, making her more receptive to sex.

19 Always brush and floss, boys. Evolutionary psychologist Gordon Gallup of the State University of New York at Albany found that when deciding whether to kiss someone, women pay much closer attention than men do to the breath and teeth of their partner.

20 You Give Love a Bad Name: One milliliter of saliva contains about 100,000,000 bacteria.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Pepsi Buys Corn From Mexican Farmers

Very interesting article in the global business section of The New York Times (2/21/11), "For Pepsi, A Business Decision with Social Benefit".   PepsiCo is now buying corn directly from Mexican corn farmers, eliminating middlemen, and guaranteeing the price upfront.  According to the article,

"The deal enables the small farmers to secure credit to buy seeds and fertilizers, crop insurance and equipment.  "Before, I had to sell my cow to buy what I needed,” said José Guzmán Santana, another farmer selling to Pepsi. “Now I keep the cow and my family has milk while I grow my crop."  Pepsi
Co’s work with the corn farmers reflects a relatively new approach by corporations trying to maintain a business edge while helping out small communities and farmers." 

This appears to be a win-win business relationship for the farmers and PepsiCo.

"The corn project saved PepsiCo transportation costs because the farms were close to two of its factories, and the use of local farms assured it access to types of corn best suited to its products and processes. “That gives us great leverage because corn prices don’t fluctuate so much, but transportation costs do,” said Pedro Padierna, president of PepsiCo’s operations in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.  The social benefits of the corn program are obvious in higher incomes that have improved nutritional and educational standards among the participating farmers, not to mention its impact on illegal immigration and possibly even the reduction of marijuana production."

Students in my online course, Global Social Change, have examined and discusssed the interconnectedness of global trade, economics, poverty, illegal drugs and immigration.  This article provides us with an excellent example to illustrate how these variables interact and impact both the U.S. and Mexico.  To read the article, go to

Good Food World raises some interesting questions about the PepsiCo-Mexico relationship.
  • Who is determining which seeds they grow?
  • Are the seeds patented hybrids or GMOs?
  • Can the farmers save their own seed?
  • Which pesticides are they instructed to use?
  • Are the costs for seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides going up?
  • Who actually negotiates and sets the price for the corn? Is it a “take it or leave it” pricing from PepsiCo or do the farmers have input?  (Good Food World)
These are fair questions.    As they say, the devil is in the details.

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Berkeley College Students Reflect On Academic Service Learning

“Study without reflection is a waste of time;
reflection without study is dangerous.”  -Confucius

Reading my students reflective journals is one of the most rewarding experiences of teaching an academic service learning course.  It allows me to see how students make important connections between their service project and the academic learning experience.   This is why reflection is considered to be a core component of academic service-learning. 

This course represents the second service-learning experience with our international service partner, Casa de los Angeles, located in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.   Last spring our students designed blog prototypes for Casa's social media strategy.  Now, with help from Ed Rivera of the Berkeley College library, students are conducting research to find sources of grants for Casa de los Angeles.    The following are exerpts from student journals.

I learned that we are all entitled to respect and dignity; we all have the potential to fall on hard times and no one has the right to scrutinize us for that. Giving individuals a second chance as CASA does; a chance to believe in their abilities is more than anyone can ask for; the love and respect that they have for the less fortunate is what drives the organization. We need to continue to work together to make certain that CASA gets the resources that they need to stay afloat. This is why the grant research project is so important.  So far, the service learning experience has impacted me in many ways. I am able to see life through a different lens.  Living in my small world does not always allow me to open my eyes to the world around me; to see how life for others really is.  I have mentioned in my posts how people can take what they have for granted because they have it, but once it is taken away, what do they do? There are not many organizations out here like CASA, so it is great that women and their children in need are afforded this experience.   N.D.

The experiences in this course have been memorable and invaluable.  The theoretical basis combined with projects serving real organizations is more organic and holistic; I feel as though I have a greater depth and breadth of knowledge and perspective, that getting in and getting my hands dirty is the best way to experience the field and is integral to my future.  To segue into the next stage, a graduating student requires a little push in the right direction.  Community service-learning this semester has given me opportunities to show that I am a student, a citizen, and a member of a community; to show that I can manage my own projects, to see where strengths and weaknesses lie, and to truly engage in projects and research using methods and approaches which I can apply to future work and life.  --A.A.

I have already learned so much from this experience, from the readings, videos, photos, discussions and research.  Never one to volunteer or “work for free”, I have now developed a completely different outlook. Volunteering isn’t working for free. The happiness and second chances that places like Casa de los Angeles provides each and every day is reward enough. I believe that this experience may be teaching me something about myself. I feel that I have been selfish because I have been fortunate. As I said before, my favorite discussion so far has been the chance to "meet" real families that are being supported by Casa. It made me want to reach out to them and have a chance to contribute to their growing happiness.  The fact that so many others have given their time to help out at Casa shows me that there are really good and generous people out there who don’t take life for granted. I want to be one of those people. --C.G.    

For more information about reflective journals and academic service-learning, visit the
online library at the National Service-Learning Clearing House 

Thursday, February 3, 2011

Egypt Unrest: Live News

There are several excellent web sites with live news from Egypt.  One is from BBC News.  To access click on this   The site offers updated videos, Q & A, maps, updated summaries of key points, profiles of Egyptian politicians and opposition groups, and other interesting topics including:

Lessons of history
Will there be a domino effect?
Egyptians react to Mubarak speech
Anxious Israel
Protesters use voice tweets
Analysis:  Army--deciding factor
Who's next?

The Guardian news blog also has live updates, including a live Twitter feed from their journalists in Egypt.  Click

The TIME Magazine web site has news updates and a live video feed Watch Egypt Live.

Excellent student-friendly resources and supplemental course materials for appropriate courses.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

The Global Divide

It is Week 2 of the winter quarter and our discussion topic this week is the double divide --- the "big gap between rich and poor nations and a big gap between the rich and poor within nations. Working in the gap are members of the global middle class. Still, the richest 5 percent of the world's people receive more than 100 times the income of the poorest 5 percent "(Sernau 16) 

Why are poverty and inequality greater in some countries than others?  We are exploring different perspectives or theories of global inequality to answer this question.  These include modernization, dependency and world systems theories.   Modernization holds that poor countries are poor because they lack modern technology and values.  Dependency theorists acknowledged that the Western or First world did bring many things to poor nations (i.e., The Third World), but that most of them were negative and destructive.  The destruction came with colonial empires but continued (via neocolonialism) after poor countries achieved independence" (Sernau 26-30).  Following the approach of dependency theory, world systems theory takes dependency theory a step further with the view that "colonial powers created a world economic system that enriched the core nations at the expense of the periphery (i.e., their colonies)" (Sernau 30).

Economist, Hernando de Soto, author of the book The Mystery of Capital, has a unique perspective on global inequality.  According to de Soto, entrepreneurism is part of human nature and capitalism works as long as certain conditions exist.   The source of extreme poverty in developing countries is a lack of property rights.  With property rights, he argues, "capitalism is a tool for poor people to prosper",(Commanding Heights Chapter 19: Capitalism Redefined).

Another approach to solving the problem of global poverty is the formation of cooperatives. 

"A co-operative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise"  (Source: ICA Statement on the Cooperative Identity).

The following video from the National Cooperative Business Association explains how cooperatives work to give the poor in developing countries a chance to improve their economic future.

Last year, while in Mexico, I visited an agricultural cooperative near San Miguel de Allende.  In response to the growing demand for organically-grown produce, this group of farmers formed a cooperative where they grow organic tomatoes for sale at the organic farmers' market in downtown San Miguel.  A local non profit, the Center for Global Justice, provided farmers with loans for the construction of greenhouses.  To read more about my trip to this cooperative, go to my January, 2010 blog postings.

International Co-operative Alliance - Statement on the Co-operative Identity February 1996 accessed 1/25/11  

National Cooperative Business Association    Cooperatives:  Building A Better World  video accessed 1/25/11.

Sernau, Scott (2009) Global Problems: The Search for Equity, Peace, and Sustainability. 2nd ed. Instructor Resources. New York: Pearson Publishing (Allyn & Bacon).

The Global Divide I  Sample Video Clip  The Commanding Heights:  The Battle for the World Economy  Accessed 1/9/11.